Wiąże się to z zaangażowaniem wielu różnych partnerów na poziomie krajowym, unijnym i międzynarodowym. This hypothesis is supported by mtDNA research which reveals a rapid dispersal event during the Late Pleistocene 11, years ago. Obszary lepszej współpracy · Należy zwrócić się do państw członkowskich, aby zapewniły do końca r. Nadzór morski jest w dużej mierze nadal organizowany na zasadach branżowych i krajowych. Strategia UE w zakresie bezpieczeństwa morskiego uprościłaby strategiczne, międzysektorowe podejście do bezpieczeństwa morskiego. W grudniu r.
Coral reefs cover c. The coasts of the Indian Ocean includes beaches and intertidal zones covering 3, km2 1, sq mi and larger estuaries. Upwelling areas are small but important. The hypersaline salterns in India covers between 5,—10, km2 1,—3, sq mi and species adapted for this environment, such as Artemia salina and Dunaliella salinaare important to bird life.
From their origin on the coasts of the Indo-Malaysian region, they have reached a global distribution.
Right: The coelacanth here a model from Oxfordthought extinct for million years, was rediscovered in the 20th century. The Indian Ocean species is blue whereas the Indonesian species is brown. Coral reefs, sea grass beds, and mangrove forests are the most productive ecosystems of the Indian Ocean — coastal areas produce 20 tones per square kilometre of fish.
These areas, however, are also being urbanised with populations often exceeding several thousand people per square kilometre and fishing techniques become more effective and often destructive beyond sustainable levels while the increase in sea surface temperature spreads coral bleaching.
Mangroves originated in the Indian Ocean region and have adapted to a wide range of its habitats but it is also where it suffers its biggest loss of habitat. Most extant coelacanths have been found in the Comoros. Although both species represent an order of lobe-finned fishes known from the Early Devonian mya and though extinct 66 mya, they are morphologically distinct from their Devonian ancestors.
Over millions of years, coelacanths evolved to inhabit different environments — lungs adapted for shallow, brackish waters evolved into gills adapted for deep marine waters. Madagascar and the islands of the western Indian Ocean Comoros, Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues, the Seychelles, and Socotraincludes 13, 11, endemic species of plants; birds; reptiles ; 97 freshwater fishes; amphibians; and mammals. A "reverse colonisation", from islands to continents, apparently occurred more recently; the chameleonsfor example, first diversified on Madagascar and then colonised Africa.
Several species on the islands of the Indian Ocean are textbook cases of evolutionary processes; the dung beetlesday geckosand lemurs are all examples of adaptive radiation. An analysis of these remains suggests a process of aridification began in the southwest Indian Ocean began around 4, year ago.
Some species have been successfully recovered since then — the population of white rhinoceros Ceratotherium simum simum increased from less than 20 individuals in to more than 17, as of Other species are still dependent of fenced areas and management programs, including black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis minorAfrican wild dog Lycaon pictuscheetah Acynonix jubatuselephant Loxodonta africanaand lion Panthera leo. It also encompasses coastal islands, including Zanzibar and Pemba, and Mafia.
Endemic and threatened mammals include the dibatag Ammodorcas clarkei and Speke's gazelle Gazella spekei ; the Somali wild ass Equus africanus somaliensis and hamadryas baboon Papio hamadryas.
It also contains many reptiles. Warsangli linnet Carduelis johannis is an endemic bird found only in northern Somalia. An unstable political regime has resulted in overgrazing which has produced one of the most degraded hotspots where only c. The region has a long and complex geological history, and long periods rising sea levels and glaciations have isolated ecosystems and thus promoted a high degree of endemism and speciation.
The region includes two centres of endemism: the Annamite Mountains and the northern highlands on the China-Vietnam border. Endangered mammals include the Bornean and Sumatran orangutansthe proboscis monkeyand the Javan and Sumatran rhinoceroses.
18 potworów morskich, które są straszniejsze od megalodona
From June to September it is an explosion of colours and the Wildflower Festival in Perth in September attracts more than half a million visitors. Right: The India—Asia collision c.
Geologically, the Indian Ocean is the ocean floor that opened up south of India. Main category: Landforms of the Indian Ocean As the youngest of the major oceans,  the Indian Ocean has active spreading ridges that are part of the worldwide system of mid-ocean ridges. These are typically deeper than 3, m 9, ft and located north of 55°S and west of 80°E. Most originated at spreading ridges but some are now located in basins far away from these ridges.
The Agulhas Plateau and Mascarene Plateau are the two major shallow areas. The written history of the Indian Ocean, however, has been Eurocentric and largely dependent on the availability of written sources from the colonial era.
This history is often divided into an ancient period followed by an Islamic period; the subsequent periods are often subdivided into Portuguese Strategiczne jednostki biznesowe w powiazanej strategii dywersyfikacji, Dutchand British periods.
The IOW is, nevertheless, sometimes referred to as the "first global economy" and was based on the monsoon which linked Asia, China, India, and Mesopotamia.
It developed independently from the European global trade in the Mediterranean and Atlantic and remained largely independent from them until European 19th-century colonial dominance.
It grew in importance beginning in the s and s and, after the Cold War, it has undergone periods of political instability, most recently with the emergence of India and China as regional powers. Pleistocene fossils of Homo erectus and other pre-H.
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According to the Toba catastrophe theorya supereruption c. The more recent Southern Dispersal or Coastal hypothesis instead advocates that modern humans spread along the coasts of the Arabic Peninsula and southern Asia. This hypothesis is supported by mtDNA research which reveals a rapid dispersal event during the Late Pleistocene 11, years ago. This coastal dispersal, however, began in East Africa 75, years ago and occurred intermittently from estuary to estuary along the northern perimeter Definicja systemu handlu morskiego Morskiego Oceanu Indyjskiego the Indian Ocean at a rate of 0.
Morski wymiar wspólnej polityki bezpieczeństwa i obrony (2012/2318(INI)).
Five African crops — sorghumpearl milletfinger milletcowpeaand hyacinth bean — somehow found their way to Gujarat in India during the Late Harappan — BCE. Gujarati merchants evolved into the first explorers of the Indian Ocean as Robot opcji binarnych w 2021 roku traded African goods such as ivory, tortoise shells, and slaves. Broomcorn millet found its way from Central Asia to Africa, together with chicken and Definicja systemu handlu morskiego Morskiego Oceanu Indyjskiego cattle, although the exact timing is disputed.
Around BCE black pepper and sesameboth native to Asia, appears in Egypt, albeit in small quantities. Around the same time the black rat and the house mouse emigrates from Asia to Egypt.
Banana reached Africa around years ago.
Analysing sand beds in caves in the Aceh region, scientists concluded that the intervals between these tsunamis have varied from series of minor tsunamis over a century to dormant periods of more than years preceding megathrusts in the Sunda Trench. Although the risk for future tsunamis is high, a major megathrust such as the one in is likely to be followed by a long dormant period.
Evidences for these impacts, the team argue, are micro-ejecta and Chevron dunes in southern Madagascar Poziom 123 MT4 wskazniki in the Australian gulf.
Geological evidences suggest the tsunamis caused by these impacts reached m ft above sea level and 45 km 28 mi inland. The impact events must have disrupted human settlements and perhaps even contributed to major climate changes. Before c. The début of this network was not the achievement of a centralised or advanced civilisation but of local and regional exchange in the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea, and the Arabian Sea. Sherds of Ubaid — BCE pottery have been found in the western Gulf at Dilmunpresent-day Bahrain ; traces of exchange between this trading centre and Mesopotamia.
The Sumerians traded grain, pottery, and bitumen used for reed boats for copper, stone, timber, tin, dates, onions, and pearls. During the two centuries that followed the reports of the explorers of Ptolemaic Egypt resulted in the best maps of the region until the Portuguese era many centuries later.
The main interest in the region for the Ptolemies was not commercial but military; they explored Africa to hunt for war elephants.